Kufu

kufu

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Petrie suggested that such a sarcophagus was intended but was lost in the river on the way north from Aswan and a hurriedly made replacement was used instead.

It is believed that their efforts dislodged the stone fitted in the ceiling of the Descending Passage to hide the entrance to the Ascending Passage and it was the noise of that stone falling and then sliding down the Descending Passage, which alerted them to the need to turn left.

Unable to remove these stones, however, the workmen tunnelled up beside them through the softer limestone of the Pyramid until they reached the Ascending Passage.

It is possible to enter the Descending Passage from this point, but access is usually forbidden. The Great Pyramid is surrounded by a complex of several buildings including small pyramids.

The Pyramid Temple, which stood on the east side of the pyramid and measured There are only a few remnants of the causeway which linked the pyramid with the valley and the Valley Temple.

The Valley Temple is buried beneath the village of Nazlet el-Samman; basalt paving and limestone walls have been found but the site has not been excavated.

He theorizes that such a saw could have been attached to a wooden trestle and possibly used in conjunction with vegetable oil, cutting sand, emery or pounded quartz to cut the blocks, which would have required the labour of at least a dozen men to operate it.

Three remain standing to nearly full height but the fourth was so ruined that its existence was not suspected until the recent discovery of the first course of stones and the remains of the capstone.

Hidden beneath the paving around the pyramid was the tomb of Queen Hetepheres I , sister-wife of Sneferu and mother of Khufu.

Discovered by accident by the Reisner expedition, the burial was intact, though the carefully sealed coffin proved to be empty.

The Giza pyramid complex, which includes among other structures the pyramids of Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure , is surrounded by a cyclopean stone wall, the Wall of the Crow.

In light of this new discovery, as to where then the pyramid workers may have lived, Lehner suggested the alternative possibility they may have camped on the ramps he believes were used to construct the pyramids or possibly at nearby quarries.

In the early s, the Australian archaeologist Karl Kromer excavated a mound in the South Field of the plateau. There are three boat-shaped pits around the pyramid, of a size and shape to have held complete boats, though so shallow that any superstructure, if there ever was one, must have been removed or disassembled.

In May , the Egyptian archaeologist Kamal el-Mallakh discovered a fourth pit, a long, narrow rectangle, still covered with slabs of stone weighing up to 15 tons.

These were entrusted to a boat builder, Haj Ahmed Yusuf, who worked out how the pieces fit together. The entire process, including conservation and straightening of the warped wood, took fourteen years.

The result is a cedar-wood boat During construction of this museum, which stands above the boat pit, a second sealed boat pit was discovered.

It was deliberately left unopened until when excavation began on the boat. Although succeeding pyramids were smaller, pyramid-building continued until the end of the Middle Kingdom.

However, as authors Brier and Hobbs claim, "all the pyramids were robbed" by the New Kingdom , when the construction of royal tombs in a desert valley, now known as the Valley of the Kings , began.

He also discusses a story told by Herodotus. Herodotus visited Egypt in the 5th century BC and recounts a story that he was told concerning vaults under the pyramid built on an island where the body of Cheops lies.

Edwards notes that the pyramid had "almost certainly been opened and its contents plundered long before the time of Herodotus" and that it might have been closed again during the Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt when other monuments were restored.

He suggests that the story told to Herodotus could have been the result of almost two centuries of telling and retelling by Pyramid guides.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Egyptian pyramid construction techniques. The Pyramids of Egypt. Retrieved 27 September Ancient Egyptian construction and architecture.

Experiments in Egyptian archaeology: Archived from the original on 8 June Retrieved 11 August Retrieved 11 October Archived from the original on 12 February Retrieved 25 December The Great pyramid in fact and in theory.

Retrieved 8 November Retrieved 15 September The Travels of Ibn Battutah. Temples of Ancient Egypt. The encyclopaedia of ancient Egyptian architecture.

Retrieved 21 August Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt. Compiled and edited by Kathryn A. Old Kingdom Pottery from Giza.

Supreme Council of Antiquities. Retrieved 21 October Retrieved 26 December Daily Life of the Ancient Egyptians. Geometry in Art and Architecture.

Chronicle of the Pharaohs. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Myths and Mythology of Ancient Egypt. Archived from the original PDF on 29 January Inside the Great Pyramid of Giza.

The Great Pyramid of Giza: Measuring Length, Area, Volume, and Angles. A Comprehensive, Illustrated Reference. Lightbody, David I Oakes, Lorana; Lucia Gahlin Petrie, Sir William Matthew Flinders The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh.

Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. The Seventy Wonders of the Ancient World. Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt.

Guide to the pyramids of Egypt; preface by Zahi Hawass. How a lost civilization was rediscovered. Their Archaeology and History.

Ity Neferkare Neby Ibi Khui. Polykleitos Canon Vitruvius De architectura. Journal of Mathematics and the Arts. Droste effect Mathematical beauty Patterns in nature Sacred geometry.

Memphis and the Memphis pyramid complex. Egyptian pyramid construction techniques Lepsius list of pyramids. Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

Wonders of the World Seven Wonders of the World film. It might be that the Sphinx, as an allegoric and mystified representation of the king, simply guarded the sacred cemetery of Giza.

Khufu possessed an extensive mortuary cult during the Old Kingdom. At the end of 6th dynasty at least 67 mortuary priests and 6 independent high officials serving at the necropolis are archaeologically attested.

Ten of them were already serving during the late 4th dynasty seven of them were royal family members , 28 were serving during the 5th dynasty and 29 during the 6th dynasty.

However, by the end of the 6th dynasty the number of domains abated quickly. At Wadi Hammamat a rock inscription dates back to the 12th dynasty.

It lists five cartouche names: Khufu, Djedefra, Khafra, Baufra and Djedefhor. Because all royal names are written inside cartouches, it was often believed that Baufra and Djedefhor once had ruled for short time, but contemporary sources entitle them as mere princes.

A literary masterpiece from the 13th dynasty talking about Khufu is the famous Papyrus Westcar , where king Khufu witnesses a magical wonder and receives a prophecy from a magician named Dedi.

Within the story, Khufu is characterised in a difficult-to-assess way. On one hand, he is depicted as ruthless when deciding to have a condemned prisoner decapitated to test the alleged magical powers of Dedi.

On the other hand, Khufu is depicted as inquisitive, reasonable and generous: The contradictory depiction of Khufu is the object of great dispute between Egyptologists and historians to this day.

They leaned on the ancient Greek traditions of Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus, who described an exaggerated negative character image of Khufu, ignoring the paradoxical because positive traditions the Egyptians themselves had always taught.

The ancient Egyptians were of the opinion that human life should not be misused for dark magic or similar evil things.

Verena Lepper and Miriam Lichtheim suspect that a difficult-to-assess depiction of Khufu was exactly what the author had planned.

He wanted to create a mysterious character. During the New Kingdom the necropolis of Khufu and the local mortuary cults were reorganized and Giza became an important economic and cultic destination again.

His son and throne follower Thutmose IV freed the Sphinx from sand and placed a memorial stele — known as the " Dream Stele " — between its front paws.

During the Twenty-first Dynasty the temple got extended, and, during the Twenty-sixth Dynasty , the extensions continued.

From this period of time several "priests of Isis" Hem-netjer-Iset , who were also "priests of Khufu" Hem-netjer-Khufu , worked there.

During the Late Period huge numbers of scarabs with the name of Khufu were sold to the citizens, possibly as some kind of lucky charms.

More than 30 scarabs are preserved. From the same period comes the famous Inventory Stela , which names Khufu and his wife Henutsen. However, modern Egyptologists question whether Khufu was still personally adored as a royal ancestor at this time; they think it more likely that Khufu was already seen as a mere symbolic foundation figure for the history of the Isis temple.

Manetho also says that Khufu received a contempt against the gods and that he had written a sacred book about that and that he Manetho received that book during his travel through Egypt.

The story about the alleged "Sacred Book" is questioned by modern Egyptologists, for it would be highly unusual that a pharaoh wrote books and that such a precious document could be sold away so easily.

The Greek historian Herodotus instead depicts Khufu as a heretic and cruel tyrant. In his literary work Historiae , Book II, chapter —, he writes: He closed all the temples; after this he kept the priests from sacrificing there and then he forced all the Egyptians to work for him.

So some were ordered to draw stones from the stone quarries in the Arabian mountains to the Nile, and others he forced to receive the stones after they had been carried over the river in boats, and to draw them to those called the Libyan mountains.

Of this oppression there passed ten years while the causeway was made by which they drew the stones, which causeway they built, and it is a work not much less, as it appears to me, than the pyramid.

When they had first made it thus, they raised the remaining stones with devices made of short pieces of timber , lifting them first from the ground to the first stage of the steps, and when the stone got up to this it was placed upon another machine standing on the first stage, and so from this it was drawn to the second upon another machine; for as many as were the courses of the steps, so many machines there were also, or perhaps they transferred one and the same machine, made so as easily to be carried, to each stage successively, in order that they might take up the stones; for let it be told in both ways, according as it is reported.

However, that may be, the highest parts of it were finished first, and afterwards they proceeded to finish that which came next to them, and lastly they finished the parts of it near the ground and the lowest ranges.

On the pyramid it is declared in Egyptian writing how much was spent on radishes and onions and leeks for the workmen, and if I remember correctly what the interpreter said while reading this inscription for me, a sum of silver talents was spent.

Kheops moreover came to such a pitch of evilness, that being in want of money he sent his own daughter to a brothel and ordered her to obtain from those who came a certain amount of money how much it was they did not tell me.

But she not only obtained the sum that was appointed by her father, but she also formed a design for herself privately to leave behind her a memorial: She requested each man who came in to her to give her one stone for her building project.

The same goes for the story about king Khafre. He is depicted as the direct follower of Khufu and as likewise evil and that he ruled for 56 years.

In chapter — Herodotus writes: This king followed the same manner as the other Herodotus closes the story of the evil kings in chapter with the words: The ancient historian Diodorus claims that Khufu was so much abhorred by his own people in later times that the mortuary priests secretly brought the royal sarcophagus, together with the corpse of Khufu, to another, hidden grave.

However, at the same time, Diodorus distances himself from Herodotus and argues that Herodotus "only tells fairy tales and entertaining fiction".

Diodorus claims that the Egyptians of his lifetime were unable to tell him with certainty who actually built the pyramids. Diodorus states that the Khufu pyramid was beautifully covered in white, but the top was said to be capped.

The pyramid therefore already had no pyramidion anymore. He also thinks that the pyramid was built with ramps, which were removed during the finishing of the lime stone shell.

Diodorus estimates that the total number of workers was , and that the building works lasted for 20 years. Upon arriving at the Giza pyramids, they searched for explanations as to who could have built these monuments.

By this time, no inhabitant of Egypt was able to tell and no one could translate the Egyptian hieroglyphs anymore.

As a consequence, the Arab historians wrote down their own theories and stories. The best known story about Khufu and his pyramid can be found in the book Hitat completely: This book contains several collected theories and myths about Khufu, especially about the Great Pyramid.

Though King Khufu himself is seldom mentioned, many Arab writers were convinced that the Great Pyramid and the others, too were built by the god Hermes named Idris by the Arabs.

Then he writes that Khufu built the pyramids after repeated nightmares in which the earth turned upside-down, the stars fell down and people were screaming in terror.

Another nightmare showed the stars falling down from heaven and kidnapping humans, then putting them beneath two large mountains.

King Khufu then received a warning from his prophets about a devastating deluge that would come and destroy Egypt. To protect his treasures and books of wisdom, Khufu built the three pyramids of Giza.

Lloyd , for example, points to documents and inscriptions from the 6th dynasty listing an important town called Menat-Khufu , meaning "nurse of Khufu".

This town was still held in high esteem during the Middle Kingdom period. Furthermore, he points to the overwhelming number of places where mortuary cults for Khufu were practiced, even outside Giza.

These mortuary cults were still practiced even in Saitic and Persian periods. The famous Lamentation Texts from the First Intermediate Period reveal some interesting views about the monumental tombs from the past; they were at that time seen as proof of vanity.

However, they give no hint of a negative reputation of the kings themselves, and thus they do not judge Khufu in a negative way.

They also call for caution against the credibility of the ancient traditions. They argue that the classical authors lived around years after Khufu and their sources that were available in their lifetimes surely were antiquated.

Oversized tombs such as the Giza pyramids must have appalled the Greeks and even the later priests of the New Kingdom , because they surely remembered the heretic pharaoh Akhenaten and his megalomaniac building projects.

These views and resulting stories were avidly snapped up by the Greek historians and so they also made negative evaluations of Khufu, since scandalous stories were easier to sell than positive tales.

Furthermore, several Egyptologists point out that Roman historians such as Pliny the Elder and Frontinus both around 70 A.

Frontinus calls them "idle pyramids, containing the indispensable structures likewise to some of our abandoned aqueducts at Rome " and Pliny describes them as "the idle and foolish ostentation of royal wealth".

Egyptologists clearly see politically and socially motivated intentions in these criticisms and it seems paradoxical that the use of these monuments was forgotten, but the names of their builders remained immortalized.

The Coptic reading derives from a later pronunciation of Khufu as "Shufu", which in turn led to the Greek reading "Suphis". Possibly the bad meaning of the Coptic reading of "Khufu" was unconsciously copied by the Greek and Roman authors.

On the other hand, some Egyptologists think that the ancient historians received their material for their stories not only from priests, but from the citizens living close to the time of the building of the necropolis.

Additionally a long-standing literary tradition does not prove popularity. The fact that Diodorus credits the Giza pyramid to Greek kings, might be reasoned in legends of his lifetimes and that the pyramids were demonstrably reused in late periods by Greek and Roman kings and noblemen.

Modern Egyptologists and historians also call for caution about the credibility of the Arabian stories. They point out that medieval Arabs were guided by the strict Islamic belief that only one god exists, and therefore no other gods were allowed to be mentioned.

As a consequence, they transferred Egyptian kings and gods into biblical prophets and kings. But some chapters later, Al-Maqrizi claims that the Copts call Saurid the builder of the pyramids.

Because of his fame, Khufu is the subject of several modern references, similar to kings and queens such as Akhenaten , Nefertiti and Tutankhamen. His historical figure appears in movies , novels and documentaries.

In , female sci-fi author Jane C. Loudon wrote the novel The Mummy! A Tale of the 22nd Century. The story describes the citizens of the 22nd century, which became highly advanced technologically, but totally immoral.

Only the mummy of Khufu can save them. Another example is Duck Tales 2 for the Game Boy. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 31 January This article is about the Egyptian pharaoh. For the encryption algorithm, see Khufu and Khafre.

For other uses, see Cheops disambiguation. Great Pyramid of Giza. Chronicle of the Pharaohs. Thames and Hudson, London, Die Sprache der Pharaonen.

Monarchs of the Nile. The natural genesis, or, second part of A book of the beginnings: Egyptian Archaeology , vol.

Wadi al-Jarf - An early pharaonic harbour on the Red Sea coast. Retrieved 21 April Waseda University, Tokyo , page —, Ancient Records of Egypt: The first through the seventeenth dynasties.

Strategies, Society and Security. Is it an Old Kingdom Sculpture? The Egyptian Museum in Cairo: A Sacred Hillside at Northwest Saqqara. A Preliminary Report on the Excavations — Volume 61, , page —; see online version with photographs.

Ancient Egyptian Art in the Brooklyn Museum. Egyptian Art in the Age of the Pyramids. Holy Warriors at the Dawn of History. Bard, Steven Blake Shubert: Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt.

Sesto Congresso internazionale di egittologia: International Association of Egyptologists, , page — Der Pyramidenkomplex des Cheops aus baulicher, architektonischer und kulturhistorischer Sicht.

Vom Ziegelbau zum Weltwunder. Hessling, Berlin , S. Mitteilungen aus den Orientalischen Sammlungen. Eine philologische und literaturwissenschaftliche Neu- Analyse.

The Old and Middle Kingdoms , Band 1. University of California Press 2. Die Geschichten des Herodot , Band 1. Hessling, Berlin , page — Der Nahe und der Mittlere Osten , vol 1.

Commentary volume 43 of: Harvard University Press u. Studies in Egyptology Presented to Miriam Lichtheim , vol. Henry Colburn, London Le roman des pyramides.

The Second Coming of the Star Gods, The Legend of The Vampire Khufu. Movies in American History. Erinnerungen an die Zukunft memories to the future.

Dictionary of minor planet names.

kufu - advise you

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Archived from the original on 8 June Retrieved 11 August Retrieved 11 October Archived from the original on 12 February Retrieved 25 December The Great pyramid in fact and in theory.

Retrieved 8 November Retrieved 15 September The Travels of Ibn Battutah. Temples of Ancient Egypt.

The encyclopaedia of ancient Egyptian architecture. Retrieved 21 August Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt. Compiled and edited by Kathryn A.

Old Kingdom Pottery from Giza. Supreme Council of Antiquities. Retrieved 21 October Retrieved 26 December Daily Life of the Ancient Egyptians.

Geometry in Art and Architecture. Chronicle of the Pharaohs. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Myths and Mythology of Ancient Egypt.

Archived from the original PDF on 29 January Inside the Great Pyramid of Giza. The Great Pyramid of Giza: Measuring Length, Area, Volume, and Angles.

A Comprehensive, Illustrated Reference. Lightbody, David I Oakes, Lorana; Lucia Gahlin Petrie, Sir William Matthew Flinders The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh.

Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. The Seventy Wonders of the Ancient World. Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac.

The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Guide to the pyramids of Egypt; preface by Zahi Hawass. How a lost civilization was rediscovered.

Their Archaeology and History. Ity Neferkare Neby Ibi Khui. Polykleitos Canon Vitruvius De architectura. Journal of Mathematics and the Arts.

Droste effect Mathematical beauty Patterns in nature Sacred geometry. Memphis and the Memphis pyramid complex. Egyptian pyramid construction techniques Lepsius list of pyramids.

Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Wonders of the World Seven Wonders of the World film. Retrieved from " https: Views Read View source View history.

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Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am November um All reliefs were made of finely polished limestone. Some of them originate from the ruined pyramid temple and the destroyed causeway, where they once covered the walls completely.

Others were found re-used in the pyramid necropolis of king Amenemhet I at Lisht and at Tanis and Bubastis. Another one shows a row of fat oxen decorated with flowers — they were obviously prepared as sacrifices during an offering procession.

The guiding inscription calls them "the surroundings of Tefef serve Khufu", "beautiful bulls of Khufu" and "bawling for Khufu". And a fourth example shows the king with the double crown impaling a hippopotamus.

The work-off of the relief is similar to that of king Snefru. In one scene king Khufu wears the double-crown; nearby, the depiction of the god Thoth is visible.

In another scene, close by, Khufu wears the Atef -crown while smiting an enemy. In this scene the god Wepwawet is present.

None of the numerous relief fragments shows king Khufu offering to a god. This is remarkable, since reliefs of Sneferu and those of all kings from Menkaura onward show the king offering to a deity.

It is possible that the lack of this special depiction influenced later ancient Greek historians in their assumptions that Khufu could have actually closed all temples and prohibited any sacrifice.

The pyramid necropolis of Khufu was erected in the northeastern section of the plateau of Giza. It is possible that the lack of building space, the lack of local limestone quarries and the loosened ground at Dahshur forced Khufu to move north, away from the necropolis of his predecessor Sneferu.

Khufu chose the high end of a natural plateau so that his future pyramid would be widely visible. Khufu decided to call his necropolis Akhet-Khufu meaning "horizon of Khufu".

The Great Pyramid has a base measurement of ca. The lack of the casing allows a full view of the inner core of the pyramid. It was erected in small steps by more or less roughly hewn blocks of dark limestone.

The casing was made of nearly white limestone. The outer surface of the casing stones were finely polished so the pyramid shimmered in bright, natural lime-white when new.

The pyramidion might have been covered in electrum , but there is no archaeological proof of that. The mortar used was a mixture of gypsum , sand, pulverized limestone and water.

The original entrance to the pyramid is on the northern side. Inside the pyramid are three chambers: The subterranean chamber remains mysterious as it was left unfinished.

A tight corridor heading south at the western end of the chamber and an unfinished shaft at the eastern middle might indicate that the subterranean chamber was the oldest of the three chambers and that the original building plan contained a simple chamber complex with several rooms and corridors.

But for unknown reasons the works were stopped and two further chambers were built inside the pyramid. It has a corbelled arch ceiling and measures Its foundation was made of black basalt , a great part of which is still preserved.

Pillars and portals were made of red granite and the ceiling stones were of white limestone. Today nothing remains but the foundation. From the mortuary temple a causeway 0.

The valley temple was possibly made of the same stones as the mortuary temple, but since even the foundation is not preserved, the original form and size of the valley temple remain unknown.

On the eastern side of the pyramid lies the East Cemetery of the Khufu necropolis, containing the mastabas of princes and princesses.

On the southern side of the Great Pyramid lie some further mastabas and the pits of the funerary boats of Khufu.

On the western side lies the West Cemetery , where the highest officials and priests were interred. A possible part of the necropolis of Khufu is the famous Great Sphinx of Giza.

The Sphinx was directly hewn out of the plateau of Giza and originally painted with red, ocher, green and black. To this day it is passionately disputed as to who exactly gave the order to build it: One of the difficulties of a correct attribution lies in the lack of any perfectly preserved portrait of Khufu.

The faces of Djedefre and Khaefra are both similar to that of the Sphinx, but they do not match perfectly. Another riddle is the original cultic and symbolic function of the Sphinx.

It might be that the Sphinx, as an allegoric and mystified representation of the king, simply guarded the sacred cemetery of Giza.

Khufu possessed an extensive mortuary cult during the Old Kingdom. At the end of 6th dynasty at least 67 mortuary priests and 6 independent high officials serving at the necropolis are archaeologically attested.

Ten of them were already serving during the late 4th dynasty seven of them were royal family members , 28 were serving during the 5th dynasty and 29 during the 6th dynasty.

However, by the end of the 6th dynasty the number of domains abated quickly. At Wadi Hammamat a rock inscription dates back to the 12th dynasty.

It lists five cartouche names: Khufu, Djedefra, Khafra, Baufra and Djedefhor. Because all royal names are written inside cartouches, it was often believed that Baufra and Djedefhor once had ruled for short time, but contemporary sources entitle them as mere princes.

A literary masterpiece from the 13th dynasty talking about Khufu is the famous Papyrus Westcar , where king Khufu witnesses a magical wonder and receives a prophecy from a magician named Dedi.

Within the story, Khufu is characterised in a difficult-to-assess way. On one hand, he is depicted as ruthless when deciding to have a condemned prisoner decapitated to test the alleged magical powers of Dedi.

On the other hand, Khufu is depicted as inquisitive, reasonable and generous: The contradictory depiction of Khufu is the object of great dispute between Egyptologists and historians to this day.

They leaned on the ancient Greek traditions of Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus, who described an exaggerated negative character image of Khufu, ignoring the paradoxical because positive traditions the Egyptians themselves had always taught.

The ancient Egyptians were of the opinion that human life should not be misused for dark magic or similar evil things. Verena Lepper and Miriam Lichtheim suspect that a difficult-to-assess depiction of Khufu was exactly what the author had planned.

He wanted to create a mysterious character. During the New Kingdom the necropolis of Khufu and the local mortuary cults were reorganized and Giza became an important economic and cultic destination again.

His son and throne follower Thutmose IV freed the Sphinx from sand and placed a memorial stele — known as the " Dream Stele " — between its front paws.

During the Twenty-first Dynasty the temple got extended, and, during the Twenty-sixth Dynasty , the extensions continued.

From this period of time several "priests of Isis" Hem-netjer-Iset , who were also "priests of Khufu" Hem-netjer-Khufu , worked there. During the Late Period huge numbers of scarabs with the name of Khufu were sold to the citizens, possibly as some kind of lucky charms.

More than 30 scarabs are preserved. From the same period comes the famous Inventory Stela , which names Khufu and his wife Henutsen.

However, modern Egyptologists question whether Khufu was still personally adored as a royal ancestor at this time; they think it more likely that Khufu was already seen as a mere symbolic foundation figure for the history of the Isis temple.

Manetho also says that Khufu received a contempt against the gods and that he had written a sacred book about that and that he Manetho received that book during his travel through Egypt.

The story about the alleged "Sacred Book" is questioned by modern Egyptologists, for it would be highly unusual that a pharaoh wrote books and that such a precious document could be sold away so easily.

The Greek historian Herodotus instead depicts Khufu as a heretic and cruel tyrant. In his literary work Historiae , Book II, chapter —, he writes: He closed all the temples; after this he kept the priests from sacrificing there and then he forced all the Egyptians to work for him.

So some were ordered to draw stones from the stone quarries in the Arabian mountains to the Nile, and others he forced to receive the stones after they had been carried over the river in boats, and to draw them to those called the Libyan mountains.

Of this oppression there passed ten years while the causeway was made by which they drew the stones, which causeway they built, and it is a work not much less, as it appears to me, than the pyramid.

When they had first made it thus, they raised the remaining stones with devices made of short pieces of timber , lifting them first from the ground to the first stage of the steps, and when the stone got up to this it was placed upon another machine standing on the first stage, and so from this it was drawn to the second upon another machine; for as many as were the courses of the steps, so many machines there were also, or perhaps they transferred one and the same machine, made so as easily to be carried, to each stage successively, in order that they might take up the stones; for let it be told in both ways, according as it is reported.

However, that may be, the highest parts of it were finished first, and afterwards they proceeded to finish that which came next to them, and lastly they finished the parts of it near the ground and the lowest ranges.

On the pyramid it is declared in Egyptian writing how much was spent on radishes and onions and leeks for the workmen, and if I remember correctly what the interpreter said while reading this inscription for me, a sum of silver talents was spent.

Kheops moreover came to such a pitch of evilness, that being in want of money he sent his own daughter to a brothel and ordered her to obtain from those who came a certain amount of money how much it was they did not tell me.

But she not only obtained the sum that was appointed by her father, but she also formed a design for herself privately to leave behind her a memorial: She requested each man who came in to her to give her one stone for her building project.

The same goes for the story about king Khafre. He is depicted as the direct follower of Khufu and as likewise evil and that he ruled for 56 years.

In chapter — Herodotus writes: This king followed the same manner as the other Herodotus closes the story of the evil kings in chapter with the words: The ancient historian Diodorus claims that Khufu was so much abhorred by his own people in later times that the mortuary priests secretly brought the royal sarcophagus, together with the corpse of Khufu, to another, hidden grave.

However, at the same time, Diodorus distances himself from Herodotus and argues that Herodotus "only tells fairy tales and entertaining fiction".

Diodorus claims that the Egyptians of his lifetime were unable to tell him with certainty who actually built the pyramids.

Diodorus states that the Khufu pyramid was beautifully covered in white, but the top was said to be capped. The pyramid therefore already had no pyramidion anymore.

He also thinks that the pyramid was built with ramps, which were removed during the finishing of the lime stone shell.

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